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Home :: Protein Diet

High Protein And Low Protein Diet

Protein is an essential nutrient for cell maintenance and repair, and regulation of a wide range of bodily functions. How much protein we need to eat in our diet usually depends on our ideal body weight. Ideal body weight is used because amino acids are not needed by fat cells, only by our lean body mass.

High Protein diet

The high protein diet has become one of the most popular diets around these days. The idea behind it is simple, no matter what your goals are, everyone can benefit from eating a high protein diet and eating high protein foods. Whether your goal is to increase muscle, gain weight and get big, lose weight and lose fat, get and/or stay lean, this type of diet is right for you.

A diet of high protein content (over 1.5 g per kg body weight) is indicated in pregnancy, lactation, fatty liver, kwashiorkor, cirrhosis of the liver (without liver failure), and nephrotic syndrome. High protein intake is not associated with harmful effects if the kidney function and fluid intake are adequate. Regular consumption of about 400 g protein daily by a healthy woman with normal kidney function raised blood urea to 150 mg per 100 ml, without signs or symptoms of uremia. High animal protein diet does not increase urinary calcium excretion as was presumed.

Skimmed milk Powder

Skimmed milk powder is a relatively inexpensive source of easily digested protein; many palatable preparations can be made with it. It is a useful supplement to a vegetarian diet. Pulses (dal), including channa (Bengal gram) and groundnuts, are also relatively inexpensive protein-rich foods.

Fortification with Amino Acids

It has been repeatedly proposed that, in an undernourished population, cereals should be fortified with amino acids. However, diets vary in different parts of the world, and adequate information on the benefits of amino acid supplement is not yet available. Large-scale supplementation of cereals is, therefore, an expensive gamble.

Salt Poor Human Albumin

To replace protein by the intravenous route is expensive. Albumin should not be used for under nutrition, nephrosis, or liver cirrhosis. There is no support for the contention that nutritional edema should be treated with albumin infusion.

Fresh frozen plasma Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma is useful in thrombocytopenic purpura and to correct depletion of coagulation factors. This mode of therapy is, however, expensive. Besides, it can spread diseases such as viral hepatitis and AIDS, and lead to formation of antibodies to donor granulocytes resulting in white cell aggregation in lung blood vessels and acute lung injury.

Mycoprotein is food produced by Fusarium graminearum on a carbohydrate substrate (glucose) with continuous fermentation. The process includes a short-term heat treatment stage to reduce RNA content by activating the endogenous RNAase enzymes. The mycoprotein is, thereafter, filtered and formed into a variety of food products. Mycoprotein contains high quality protein, a low amount of unsaturated fatty acids, and dietary fiber. It can be textured and flavored to resemble meat, or made into delicious dishes. It is approved as food in the UK and has been sold in the open market since 1985.

Spirulina Algae

These are tiny plant-like organisms valued as an immensely rich source of proteins, vitamins, and minerals.

Single Cell Protein

Yeasts, algae, fungi, and bacteria used in nutrition are referred to as single cell proteins. (The best known fungus in diet is mushroom.) Bacterial fermentation and yeast are always used in the human diet. For the growth of single cell proteins, live micro-organisms are brought into intimate contact with hydrocarbon or alcohol substrate, along with oxygen, nitrogen, and minerals, in a continuous fermentation system. When finally fed to pigs, sheep, poultry, and fish, the product consists of dead organisms.

Algae contain chlorophyll, which utilizes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to produce carbohydrate, and synthesize protein from inorganic nitrogen. Algae contain 60% protein (dry weight).

Low Protein diet

The products of protein metabolism and bacterial decomposition in the bowel are detoxified by the liver and excreted by the kidneys. Marked damage to the liver or kidneys leads to accumulation of the products of protein breakdown, which produce toxic symptoms. With liver failure, as in fulminant viral hepatitis and advanced cirrhosis of the liver, or during suppression of urine as in severe nephritis, it is advisable to withhold proteins till the patient has tided over the crisis.

In liver failure, carbohydrates should be the only source of calories, as proteins-and probably fats as well-are not metabolized by the liver. During suppression of urine, fats as well as carbohydrates are permitted.

The Low Protein Diet is deficient in protein and can result in muscle wasting. This is a consequence of muscle protein being broken down to provide amino acids to the body for daily use. This diet may also be low in iron, calcium, thiamine (Vitamin B-1), riboflavin (Vitamin B-2), and niacin (Vitamin B-3) and so a nutritional supplement may be necessary to prevent deficiency.

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